Neural Marker Guide

We offer a wide array of highly-specific neural cell markers in hosts such as chicken, mouse, and rabbit for ease in multiplexing. Many of our markers are also available in a variety of fluorophore-conjugated formats!

 

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The nervous system contains a number of specialized cell types in addition to neurons including microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. Distinct proteins expressed by each of these cell types in various phases serve as useful markers in identifying and characterizing these highly specialized cells.
For neuronal markers, start reading below, or jump to Glial and Schwann Cell Markers!

NEURONAL MARKERS


Neural Stem Cell Markers

Neural stem cells are multipotent, undifferentiated cells that can generate all the major cell types of the central nervous system. Antibodies against neural stem cell proteins such as nestin and SOX2 are useful to identify neural stem cells and developing neurons.
Our neural stem cell products include:

Nestin

SOX2

Doublecortin

E-cadherin

CXCR4

CD133

Musashi 1

Vimentin

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Nestin IHC

Chicken polyclonal Nestin in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus

Neurons

Neurons express distinct proteins at different levels, regions and stages in their development and can be classified by the type of neurotransmitter they produce. Antibodies against various neuronal proteins are useful in distinguishing neurons from other neural cell types, determining the function of neurons (i.e. inhibitory or excitatory) and discovering synaptic partners.

c-Fos

β3 Tubulin

Doublecortin

GAP43

MAP2

Neu-N

Neurofilament Heavy

Neurofilament Medium

Neurofilament Light

Synaptophysin

NSE

Ki67

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Chicken polyclonal Neu-N in auditory ganglion

Activated Neurons

Neuronal immediate early genes (IEGs) such as c-FOS are rapidly induced by neuronal activity and thus serve as excellent markers of activated neurons.

Immature Neurons

Proteins that are highly expressed in early stages of neuronal development such as beta III tubulin, doublecortin, and GAP43 can be useful in identifying migrating, immature neurons.

Mature Neurons

Proteins such as MAP2, NeuN, Neurofilaments, Synaptophysin, and NSE that show increased expression in later stages of neuronal development can be used to identify mature, differentiated neurons that are no longer capable of cell division.

Proliferating Neurons

Ki-67 is a nuclear protein that is considered to be essential for cellular proliferation since it is expressed only in active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2 and mitosis) but not in resting phase G0. Ki-67 antibodies have therefore been widely used as markers of cell growth.

Synapse Markers

Proteins that are localized to either the pre-synaptic or post-synaptic terminals are frequently used in conjunction to identify synapse formation and study the development and maintence of synaptic junctions.

Pre-Synaptic

Proteins such as VGLUT1 and synaptophysin are localized in pre-synaptic terminals and therefore serve as excellent pre-synaptic markers.

Synapsin IHC

Rabbit polyclonal Synapsin in caudate neurons

VGLUT1

VGLUT2

Synapsin

VGAT

VMAT2

Neurexin 1β

Bassoon

SNAP25

Synaptophysin

Synaptotagmin

Syntaxin

Synaptobrevin (VAMP)

α-Synuclein

Dopa Decarboxylase

Dopamine Transporter

Tyrosine Hydroxylase

GAP43

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Post-Synaptic

Proteins such as PSD95 and shank family proteins are localized in post-synaptic terminals and therefore serve as excellent post-synaptic markers.

PSD95

Pan-MAGUK

Pan-Shank

Shank1

Shank2

Shank 3

GluR2

SAP102

Neuroligin 1

Neuroligin 2

Neuroligin 3

Homer 1

GABAAR γ2

Gephyrin

SAPAP3

NMDAR1

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Dopaminergic Neuronal Markers

Dopaminergic neurons produce the monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine. TH antibodies can therefore be used as markers for dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons in a variety of applications including depression, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and drug abuse.

Tyrosine Hydroxylase

Dopa Decarboxylase

Dopamine Transporter

Dopamine β-Hydroylase

Nurr1

VMAT2

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Rabbit polyclonal
Tyrosine Hydroxylase in dopaminergic neurons

Glutamatergic Neuronal Markers

Glutamatergic neurons produce glutamate, which is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system and plays a crucial role in learning and memory. Antibodies against proteins such as NMDAR2B and VGLUT are widely used to identify glutamatergic neurons.

NMDAR2B

NMDAR1

VGLUT1

VGLUT2

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Rabbit polyclonal
NR2B in iPSC derived neurons

GABAergic Neuronal Markers

GABAergic neurons produce GABA, which is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. Proteins such as GABAAR alpha 1 and GAD65/67 are widely used to identify GABAergic neurons. GABAergic interneurons typically express only one of three calcium binding proteins: calbindin, calretinin or parvalbumin. Inhibitory interneurons that differ morphologically can be distinguished and subclassified based on their expression of these proteins.

Chicken polyclonal
GAD67 in Sph21 neuroblastoma cells

GABAAR α1

GABAAR α2

GABAAR α3

GABAAR α4

GABAAR α5

GABAAR α6

GABAAR β1

GABAAR β2

GABAAR β3

GABAAR δ

GABAAR γ2

GABAAR ε

GABAAR π

GAD65/67

GABA Transporter 1 (GAT1)

GABABR1

GABABR2

Calbindin

Calretinin

Parvalbumin

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Cholinergic Neuronal Markers

Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT) catalyzes the synthesis of acetylcholine which is the primary neurotransmitter used by cholinergic neurons. Antibodies such as ChAT can therefore be used to identify cholinergic neurons.

Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT)

VACHT

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Mouse monoclonal
VACHT in coronal sections of rat cerebellum

Serotonergic Neuronal Markers

Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC) are enzymes invovled in the synthesis of serotonin which is the principal neurotransmitter used by serotonergic neurons. TPH and DDC antibodies can therefore be used to identify serotonergic neurons.

Tryptophan Hydroxylase

DOPA Decarboxylase

VMAT2

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Sheep polyclonal
VMAT2 in retinal sections

Axonal and Dendritic Markers

The axon is a specialized projection that emerges from the soma (cell body) of a neuron which propagates action potentials down its length, ultimately leading to neurotransmitter release at the axon terminals. Proteins such as ankyrin G and neurofascin are specifically localized in axon initial segments making them excellent axon markers.

Dendrites are the "branches" of neurons and receive synaptic inputs from axons. MAP2 is specifically localized in dendrites making antibodies against MAP2 the most widely used dendritic markers.

Chicken polyclonal
MAP2 in neurosphere cultures

Ankyrin G

Neurofascin

FGF14/FHF4

β4 Spectrin

Nav1 Sodium Channel

Neurofilament Light

Neurofilament Medium

Neurofilament Heavy

Tau

LN1CAM

MAP2

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GLIAL AND SCHWANN CELL MARKERS


Glial cells are non-neuronal cells which provide protection and support to neurons. Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia are the glial cell types in the central nervous system. Schwann cells are a type of glial cell which make up the majority of glia in the peripheral nervous system. Antibodies against various glial proteins are useful in distinguishing the different glial cell types.

Astrocyte Markers

Astrocytes are a type of glia in the CNS that have many functions including maintaining brain homeostasis, regulating neurotransmiiters and promoting synapse formation. Proteins such as GFAP and S100B are predominantly expressed by astrocytes making them excellent markers for identifying them.

Oligodendrocyte Markers

Oligodendrocytes, a type of glia, are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system. Proteins expressed in various phases of oligodendrocyte development serve as useful markers in distinguishing them.

Oligodendrocyte precursor cells - Neural-glial antigen 2 (NG2) is a hallmark protein of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and is therefore widely used as a marker to identify them.

Mature oligodendrocytes - Proteins such as Olig2 are essentail for oligodendrocyte development and are therefore widely used in identifying mature oligodendrocytes.

Microglia Markers

Microglia are of myeloid lineage and migrate to the CNS during development to become the resident immune cells of the brain. They have become increasingly implicated in the progression of various neurodegenerative diseases.

Quiescent - TMEM119 expression readily distinguishes resident microglia from blood-derived macrophages, making it a highly specific microglia marker.

Activated - Proteins such as Iba1 which are upregulated in microglial activation serve as useful markers to identify microglia in their activated state.

Schwann Cell Markers

Schwann cells are the myelinating cells of the peripheral nervous system. The high expression of proteins such as P-Zero Myelin Protein (MPZ) and MBP in these cells make antibodies against them them excellent Schwann cell markers.

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