Human Mouse Rat
ICC IHC WB
Human TYH (EC 126.96.36.199) is a 58,523 dalton protein (528 amino acids) responsible for the enzymatic conversion of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA (dihydroxyphenylalanine). This enzyme is expressed in all catecholaminergic neurons of the CNS and PNS. In the CNS, TYH-positive neurons can be found within the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, locus ceruleus, and hypothalamus. In the PNS, TYH-positive neurons can be found within the sympathetic chain, pre-vertebral ganglia and the adrenal medulla.
Chickens were immunized with two synthetic peptide / keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) conjugates. These synthetic peptides corresponded to different regions of the Tyrosine Hydroxylase gene product, but were shared between the human (P07101, NCBI) and mouse (P24529, NCBI) sequences. After repeated injections into the hens, immune eggs were collected, and the IgY fractions were purified from the yolks. These IgY fractions were affinity-purified using a peptide column, and the concentrations of the eluates adjusted to 200 ug/ml. Finally, equal volumes of both affinity-purified anti-peptide antibody preparations were mixed, and the preparation was filter-sterilized.
Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (EC 188.8.131.52) (Tyrosine 3-hydroxylase) (TH)
Antibody Validation and Application Notes
This antibody has been validated using the following assays:
The following quality control assay is performed on each new lot of this antibody to ensure it meets designated performance requirements.
Both of the antibodies were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (at a concentration of 3 ug/ml) using fluorescein-labeled goat anti-chicken IgY (1:500 dilution, Aves Labs Cat.# F-1005) as the secondary reagent.
Citations and References
- Muzerelle A, Scotto-Lomassese S, Bernard JF, Soiza-Reilly M, Gaspar P (2016), 'Conditional anterograde tracing reveals distinct targeting of individual serotonin cell groups (B5–B9) to the forebrain and brainstem.' Brain Sturcture and Function. 10.1007/s00429-014-0924-4.
- Cho JR, Treweek JB, Robinson JE, Xiao C, Bremner LR, Greenbaum A, Gradinaru V (2017), 'Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Modulate Arousal and Promote Wakefulness by Salient Stimuli.' Neuron. 10.1016/j.neuron.2017.05.020.
- Merchan-Sala P, Nardini D, Waclaw RR, Campbell K (2017), 'Selective neuronal expression of the SoxE factor, Sox8, in direct pathway striatal projection neurons of the developing mouse brain.' The Journal of Comparative Neurology Research in Systems Neuroscience. 10.1002/cne.24232.
- Shin G, Gomez AM, Al-Hasani R, Jeong YR, Kim J, Xie Z, Banks A, Lee SM, Han SY, Yoo CJ, Lee JL, Lee SH, Kurniawan J, Tureb J, Guo Z, Yoon J, Park SI, Bang SY, Nam Y, Walicki MC, Samineni VK, Mickle AD, Lee K, Heo SY, McCall JG, Pan T, Wang L, Feng X, Kim TI, Kim JK, Li Y, Huang Y, Gereau RW th, Ha JS, Bruchas MR, Rogers JA (2017), 'Flexible Near-Field Wireless Optoelectronics as Subdermal Implants for Broad Applications in Optogenetics.' NeuroResource. 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.12.031.
- Vastagh C, Liposits Z (2017), 'Impact of Proestrus on Gene Expression in the Medial Preoptic Area of Mice.' Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 10.3389/fncel.2017.00183.
- Tiveron MC, Beclin C, Murgan S, Wild S, Angelova A, Marc J, Coré N, de Chevigny A, Herrera E, Bosio A, Bertrand V, Cremer H (2017), 'Zic-Proteins Are Repressors of Dopaminergic Forebrain Fate in Mice and C. elegans.' The Journal of Neuroscience. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3888-16.2017.
- Pomeranz LE, Ekstrand MI, Latcha KN, Smith GA, Enquist LW, Friedman JM (2017), 'Gene Expression Profiling with Cre-Conditional Pseudorabies Virus Reveals a Subset of Midbrain Neurons That Participate in Reward Circuitry.' The Journal of Neuroscience. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3193-16.2017.
- De Biase LM, Schuebel KE, Fusfeld ZH, Jair K, Hawes IA, Cimbro R, Zhang HY, Liu QR, Shen H, Xi ZX, Goldman D, Bonci A (2017), 'Local cues establish and maintain region-specific phenotypes of basal ganglia microglia.' Neuron. 10.1016/j.neuron.2017.06.020.
- McCall JG, Siuda ER, Bhatti DL, Lawson LA, McElligott ZA, Stuber GD, Bruchas MR (2017), 'Locus coeruleus to basolateral amygdala noradrenergic projections promote anxiety-like behavior.' eLife. 10.7554/eLife.18247.
- Nishiyama J, Mikuni T, Yasuda R (2017), 'Virus-Mediated Genome Editing via Homology- Directed Repair in Mitotic and Postmitotic Cells in Mammalian Brain.' Neuron. 10.1016/j.neuron.2017.10.004.
- Pirzgalska RM, Seixas E, Seidman JS, Link VM, Sánchez NM, Mahú I, Mendes R, Gres V, Kubasova N, Morris I, Arús BA, Larabee CM, Vasques M, Tortosa F, Sousa AL, Anandan S, Tranfield E, Hahn MK, Iannacone M, Spann NJ, Glass CK, Domingos AI (2017), 'Sympathetic neuron–associated macrophages contribute to obesity by importing and metabolizing norepinephrine.' Nature Medicine. 10.1038/nm.4422.
- Qin S, Ware SM, Waclaw RR, Campbell K (2017), 'Septal contributions to olfactory bulb interneuron diversity in the embryonic mouse telencephalon: role of the homeobox gene Gsx2.' Neural Development. 10.1186/s13064-017-0090-5.
- Jerzy O. Szablowski, Audrey Lee-Gosselin, Brian Lue, Dina Malounda, Mikhail G. Shapiro (2018), 'Acoustically targeted chemogenetics for the non-invasive control of neural circuits.' Nature Biomedical Engineering. 10.1038/ s41551-018-0258-2.
- Barry J, Akopian G, Cepeda C, Levine MS (2018), 'Striatal Direct and Indirect Pathway Output Structures are Differentially Altered in Mouse Models of Huntington's Disease.' The Journal of Neuroscience. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0434-18.2018.
- Gil-Tommee C, Vidal-Martinez G, Annette Reyes C, Vargas-Medrano J, Herrera GV, Martin SM, Chaparro SA, Perez RG (2018), 'Parkinsonian GM2 synthase mice lacking mature gangliosides develop urinary dysfunction and neurogenic bladder.' Experimental Neurology. 10.1016/j.expneurol.2018.10.014.
- Colina C, Puhl HL rd, Ikeda SR (2018), 'Selective tracking of FFAR3-expressing neurons supports receptor coupling to N-type calcium channels in mouse sympathetic neurons.' Nature Scientific Reports. 10.1038/s41598-018-35690-z.
- Glennon E, Carcea I, Martins ARO, Multani J, Shehu I, Svirsky MA, Froemke RC (2018), 'Locus coeruleus activation accelerates perceptual learning.' Brain Research. 10.1016/j.brainres.2018.05.048.
- Vincent Breton-Provencher and Mriganka Sur (2019), 'Active control of arousal by a locus coeruleus GABAergic circuit.' Nature Neuroscience. 10.1038/s41593-018-0305-z.
- Stephen W. Kruse, | Kyle G. Dayton, | Benton S. Purnell, | Jared I. Rosner | Gordon F. Buchanan (2019), 'Effect of monoamine reuptake inhibition and a1 blockade on respiratory arrest and death following electroshock-induced seizures in mice.' Epilepsia. 10.1111/epi.14652 .
- Mafalda M. A. Pereira, Inês Mahú, Elsa Seixas, Noelia Martinéz-Sánchez, Nadiya Kubasova, Roksana M Pirzgalska, Paul Cohen, Marcelo O Dietrich, Miguel López, Gonçalo J. L. Bernardes, Ana I. Domingos (2017), 'A brain-sparing diphtheria toxin for chemical genetic ablation of peripheral cell lineages.' Nature Communications. 10.1038/ncomms14967.
- Zsuzsanna Bardóczi, Tamás Wilheim, Katalin Skrapits, Erik Hrabovszky, Gergely Rácz, András Matolcsy, Zsolt Liposits, Joanna H. Sliwowska, Árpád Dobolyi and Imre Kalló (2019), 'GnRH Neurons Provide Direct Input to Hypothalamic Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactive Neurons Which Is Maintained During Lactation.' Frontiers in Endocrinology. 10.3389/fendo.2018.00685.